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URL: https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/e235e56.html
29.Jul.2004 An die Stelle der alten bürgerlichen Gesellschaft mit ihren Klassen und Klassengegensätzen tritt eine Assoziation, worin die freie Entwicklung eines jeden die Bedingung für die freie Entwicklung aller ist.
Die Kommunisten verschmähen es, ihre Ansichten und Absichten zu verheimlichen.

Sie erklären es offen, daß ihre Zwecke nur erreicht werden können durch den gewaltsamen Umsturz aller bisherigen Gesellschafts ordnung.

Mögen die herrschenden Klassen vor einer kommunistischen Revolution zittern.

Die Proletarier haben nichts in ihr zu verlieren als ihre Ketten.

Sie haben eine Welt zu gewinnen.

Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!«
URL: https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/e235e56.html
00.Jan.1848 -Ende- K. Marx + F. Engels beenden das »Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei«. Es erscheint Ende Februar in London.
Im Manifest heißt es u. a.:
»Die Geschichte aller bisherigen Gesellschaft ist die Geschichte von Klassenkämpfen.

Die Gesellschaft spaltet sich mehr und mehr in zwei große feindliche Lager, in zwei große, einander direkt gegenüberstehende Klassen: Bourgeoisie und Proletariat.
Die Bourgeoisie kann nicht existieren, ohne die Produktionsinstrumente, also die Produktionsverhältnisse, also sämtliche gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse fortwährend zu revolutionieren ...
Der moderne Arbeiter ... hebt sich nicht mit dem Fortschritt der Industrie, sondern sinkt immer tiefer unter die Bedingungen seiner eigenen Klasse herab.

Der Arbeiter wird zum Pauper + der Pauperismus entwickelt sich noch rascher als Bevölkerung und Reichtum.

Es tritt hiermit offen hervor, daß die Bourgeoisie unfähig ist, noch länger die herrschende Klasse der Gesellschaft zu bleiben und die Lebensbedingungen ihrer Klasse der Gesellschaft als regelndes Gesetz aufzuzwingen.

Sie ist unfähig, zu herrschen, weil sie unfähig ist, ihrem Sklaven die Existenz selbst innerhalb seiner Sklaverei zu sichern...
Die wesentlichste Bedingung für die Existenz und für die Herrschaft der Bourgeoisieklasse ist die Anhäufung des Reichtums in den Händen von Privaten, die Bildung und Vermehrung des Kapitals;

die Bedingung des Kapitals ist die Lohnarbeit.

Die Lohnarbeit beruht ausschließlich auf der Konkurrenz der Arbeiter unter sich.

Der Fortschritt der Industrie ... setzt an die Stelle der Isolierung der Arbeiter durch die Konkurrenz ihre revolutionäre Vereinigung durch die Assoziation.

Sie (die Bourgeoisie) produziert vor allem ihre eigenen Totengräber.

Ihr Untergang und der Sieg des Proletariats sind gleich unvermeidlich.
Der nächste Zweck der Kommunisten ist derselbe wie der aller übrigen proletarischen Parteien:

Bildung des Proletariats zur Klasse, Sturz der Bourgeoisieherrschaft, Eroberung der politischen Macht durch das Proletariat

... die Kommunisten (können) ihre Theorie in dem einen Ausdruck:

Aufhebung des Privateigentums, zusammenfassen.
Wenn das Proletariat im Kampfe gegen die Bourgeoisie sich notwendig zur Klasse vereint, durch eine Revolution sich zur herrschenden Klasse macht und als herrschende Klasse gewaltsam die alten Produktionsverhältnisse aufhebt, so hebt es mit diesen Produktionsverhältnissen die Existenzbedingungen des Klassengegensatzes, der Klassen überhaupt, und damit seine eigene Herrschaft als Klasse auf.
An die Stelle der alten bürgerlichen Gesellschaft mit ihren Klassen und Klassengegensätzen tritt eine Assoziation, worin die freie Entwicklung eines jeden die Bedingung für die freie Entwicklung aller ist.
Die Kommunisten verschmähen es, ihre Ansichten und Absichten zu verheimlichen.

Sie erklären es offen, daß ihre Zwecke nur erreicht werden können durch den gewaltsamen Umsturz aller bisherigen Gesellschafts ordnung.

Mögen die herrschenden Klassen vor einer kommunistischen Revolution zittern.

Die Proletarier haben nichts in ihr zu verlieren als ihre Ketten.

Sie haben eine Welt zu gewinnen. Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!«
URL: https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/e235e55.html
29.Nov.1847-08.Dez.1847 Zweiter Kongreß des »Bundes der Kommunisten« in London. Der Kongreß nimmt die Statuten des Bundes an. Dessen Art. 1 lautet:
Der Zweck des Bundes ist der Sturz der Bourgeoisie, die Herrschaft des Proletariats, die Aufhebung der alten, auf Klassengegensätzen beruhenden bürgerlichen Gesellschaft und die Gründung einer neuen Gesellschaft ohne Klassen und ohne Privateigentum. K. Marx und F. Engels werden vom Kongreß »mit der Abfassung eines für die Öffentlichkeit bestimmten ausführlichen theoretischen und praktischen Parteiprogramms« beauftragt.
URL: https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/e235e54.html
22.Okt.1847 F. Engels kritisiert auf einer Sitzung der Kreisbehörde des »Bundes der Kommunisten« in Paris sehr heftig das von M. Hess verfaßte »Glaubensbekenntnis«, welches er daraufhin neu entwerfen soll.

Er schreibt die »Grundsätze des Kommunismus«.
URL: https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/e235e53.html
00.Aug.1847 -Anf-K. Marx + F. Engels gründen in Brüssel den Deutschen Arbeiterverein, in dessen Vorstand unter anderen M. Hess gewählt wird.
URL: https://noticias.clix.pt/Politica/71370.html
28.Jul.2004 Ontem, o secretário de Estado das Florestas, Luís Pinheiro, admitiu que a Agência para a Prevenção de Incêndios Florestais não tem condições para trabalhar por falta de recursos financeiros e humanos.

Luís Pinheiro disse que quando foi anunciada a criação da Agência para a Prevenção de Incêndios Florestais, em 00.Oct.2003 já era de prever que não estivesse em pleno funcionamento durante a época de fogos deste ano.

URL: https://noticias.clix.pt/Politica/71370.html
28.Jul.2004 Desenvolvida pelo seu antecessor
Ministro da Agricultura elogia política de prevenção e vigilância de fogos (28.Jul.2004)
O novo ministro da Agricultura, Pescas e Florestas, Carlos da Costa Neves, elogiou hoje a política de prevenção e vigilância de incêndios do seu antecessor, que promoveu um "esforço notório".
"Ministro da Agricultura elogia política de prevenção e vigilância de fogos");

"Não posso deixar de saudar o trabalho desenvolvido pelos serviços deste ministério, em articulação com entidades actuantes", referiu.

"Os números falam por si e demonstram a prioridade que esta questão assumiu", salientou o ministro, prometendo para mais tarde a divulgação das medidas em curso.

De acordo com os últimos números disponíveis, até domingo arderam cerca de 30 mil hectares de floresta, uma situação que levou o Governo português a pedir ajuda à União Europeia para o combate às chamas.
URL: 
https://noticias.clix.pt/Politica/71349.html
28.Jul.2004 "Serão medidas há muito esperadas pelos portugueses", prometeu Santana Lopes, no final de um discurso de meia hora, escusando-se a entrar em mais pormenores. O primeiro-ministro prometeu que o Governo irá tomar decisões ao "ritmo" e à medida dos "interesses nacionais".

Durante o seu discurso, vincou a necessidade de agir em função das necessidades do povo e para o povo, afirmando que se "preocupa com o juízo do povo".

Metade do tempo gasto no discurso, feito de improviso, serviu para atacar todos os partidos da oposição, que condenou pelo facto de não terem apresentado uma proposta construtiva para incluir no programa do Governo.

"Que bem fez o Presidente da República ao escolher a actual maioria para formar Governo", disse Santana Lopes, justificando que a oposição, e em particular o PS, não está em condições para ir a eleições. E, se houvesse eleições, o PSD ganharia, assegurou o primeiro-ministro.

"O que ficou provado neste debate é que não existia alternativa a esta maioria no país, não existe alternativa no Parlamento. Não ouvi aqui ninguém dizer que no quadro deste Parlamento era possível outra maioria", sublinhou.

"O PS sabe que eu não tinha receio nenhum de eleições. Mas se fossemos a eleições os senhores perdê-las-iam novamente", declarou depois Pedro Santana Lopes.
28.Jul.2004
Nader to Crash Dems' Party?: "I would like to see the bazaar. I'd like to see the alcoholic-musical-political payoff bazaar of accounts receivable," Nader said. "I would like to be there at the convention to watch. I will try to get credentials… I may try as a syndicated columnist, which I've been for 35 years. Let's see if they are against reporters."

28.Jul.2004 "Beijing Tests Washington's Resolve in East Asia" : China last week conducted its eighth annual military exercises in the Taiwan Strait, on an island only 174 miles from Taiwanese territory. The exercises consisted of some 18,000 Chinese troops, involving land, air and sea maneuvers. Beijing quite bluntly announced that the purpose of the exercises was to simulate an invasion of Taiwan.

Putin Tells West Not to Meddle in Ukraine: "Their agents, both inside our countries and outside, are trying everything possible to compromise the integration between Russia and Ukraine," Putin said

Castro responds to Bush’s prostitution charges: Cuban leader says president is ‘sinister’

Bush Took Quote Out of Context, Researcher Says: Student whose paper on Castro was used in a speech is 'annoyed.' He says the president misconstrued the Cuban leader's stance.

In case you missed it?: The Bush Dynasty and the Cuban Criminals: New book reveals links of two presidents and the governor of Florida with exiled hardliners

28.Jul.2004 .S.: Review Panels No Fix for Guantanamo: The Pentagon’s new tribunals to review combatant status will not give detainees at Guantanamo a fair opportunity to challenge their detention,

Human Rights Watch said today.

28.Jul.2004 US Navy preps 'Gestapo' server removal: The Navy's name choice for the server was certainly not the best. It's uncomfortable enough for some to see the reference to Nazi Germany's police force and even more uncomfortable to think this is the monicker given to some kind of Muslim journalist snoop system.

28.Jul.2004 Another Lie. More Will Die?: Bush Floats War Against Iran: Failing to stamp passports is commonplace. Yet the Bush Administration, operating on the assumption that most Americans don't know that, is floating the possibility of war against Iran based on that innocuous practice.

28.Jul.2004 U.S., Israel Have No Claim On Iran Nuclear Program: Russian Official : "The threats by the U.S. and Israel against Iran contravene international law."

28.Jul.2004 Paul Krugman: Fear of Fraud: Why should anyone trust their verdict on the integrity of voting machines, when another convenient mistake could deliver a Republican victory in a high-stakes national election?

28.Jul.2004 Gov. Jeb Bush takes back good move on voting: Now it looks as if the governor simply sees political benefit in keeping people off the voting rolls.

28.Jul.2004 In case you missed it: Hail To The Thief: Greg Palast: BBC Investigation Into How Voter Data Was Used To Prevent Democrats From Voting In The Last Presidential Elections.

28.Jul.2004 Lost Record '02 Florida Vote Raises '04 Concern: Almost all the electronic records from the first widespread use of touch-screen voting in Miami-Dade County have been lost, stoking concerns that the machines are unreliable as the presidential election draws near.

28.Jul.2004 Opium trade booms in 'basket-case' Afghanistan: The opium harvest in Afghanistan this year will be one of the biggest on record, the Foreign Office said yesterday + it has triggered a flood of heroin on Britain's streets.

28.Jul.2004 Sheila Samples: I know you are but what am I? : Journalism is now totalitarian propaganda driven by corporate agenda. Today's journalism world is unfriendly, mean spirited, partisan -- and destructive.

28.Jul.2004 An Excuse-Spouting Bush Is Busted by 9/11 Report : Busted! Like a teenager whose beer bash is interrupted by his parents' early return home, President Bush's nearly three years of bragging about his "war on terror" credentials has been exposed by the bipartisan 9/11 commission as nothing more than empty posturing.

28.Jul.2004 Bush's 9/11 Farce : Three years after the events of Sept. 11, 2001 -- the biggest intelligence failure in U.S. history -- and after his own administration went to war for reasons that did not exist, the president has ordered his crack staff to see which of the Sept. 11 commission's recommendations can be implemented fast and without congressional approval. Bush, you will recall, opposed the creation of the commission in the first place.

28.Jul.2004 9/11: Did Musharraf know?: As many experts in the US itself have admitted, the Taliban was under the control of Pakistan's ISI. It had many serving and retired officers of the Pakistan army serving in it. The Taliban's intelligence set-up was largely staffed by serving and retired officers of the ISI.

28.Jul.2004 Islamic Charity Says F.B.I. Falsified Evidence Against It : A shuttered Islamic charity in Dallas, accused of being a financial front for Middle East terrorists, charged Monday that the Federal Bureau of Investigation falsified evidence and "fabricated a case" against it in an effort to show that it financed Palestinian suicide-bombers.

28.Jul.2004 Afghans Move Closer To Mullah Omar Capture: The recent capture of key relatives and aides to Mullah Mohammed Omar, the fugitive leader of the Taliban, is enabling US and Afghan intelligence officials to tighten the net around him

28.Jul.2004 Who is a Terrorist?: Under the cover of “war on terror”, the US and its “coalition” of lackeys are conducting a war of injustice, abuse of human rights and atrocities of enormous magnitude against defenceless people + in violation of international laws and norms of civilized nations.

28.Jul.2004 Asserting this war has made us safer won't make it so : So how are we safer? If we hadn't invaded Iraq, perhaps vicious crazed Iraqis would be conducting suicide attacks on America as they were before 9/11, right?

28.Jul.2004 Iraqi Police Face Charges of Brutality : The Intelligence Service has its own secret prison. The police arrest the innocent, beat them + imprison them without charge; and in at least one case, police shot dead an innocent bystander.

28.Jul.2004 No Offers of Troops to Protect U.N. Staff in Iraq : ''We have had no concrete offers of troops from any country,'' a U.N. spokesman told IPS.

28.Jul.2004 Saddam could die before his trial : Saddam Hussein has suffered a stroke, his lawyers said today.

28.Jul.2004 Bush Using Drugs to Control Depression, Erratic Behavior: President George W. Bush is taking powerful anti-depressant drugs to control his erratic behavior, depression and paranoia, Capitol Hill Blue has learned

28.Jul.2004 Iraqis accuse British troops of war crimes: British troops committed "war crimes" in post-war Iraq, unlawfully killing civilians and beating and torturing prisoners in their custody, lawyers for the victims have alleged.

28.Jul.2004 UK troops held torture contests, Iraqi claims : A HOTEL worker who says he witnessed British troops beating his friend to death in Iraq spoke yesterday of being subjected to "torture competitions" at the hands of the army.

28.Jul.2004 Iraqi Plaintiffs Sue Private U.S. Contractors : The Plaintiffs allege that they or their decedents, while forcibly detained under United States custody in Iraq, were unlawfully tortured by agents or employees of the Defendants, who were under contract with the United States government

28.Jul.2004 The U.S. Army Needs A Few Good Ideas: $200 Million Ad Campaign Must Lure Recruits in Wartime

28.Jul.2004 The real reasons Bush went to war : WMD was the rationale for invading Iraq. But what was really driving the US were fears over oil and the future of the dollar

28.Jul.2004 In case you missed it: The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War With Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth

28.Jul.2004 Millions in U.S. property lost in Iraq, report says: Halliburton Co. has lost $18.6 million of government property in Iraq, about a third of the items it was given to manage, including trucks, computers and office furniture, government auditors claim

28.Jul.2004 Why the US granted 'protected' status to Iranian terrorists: The US State Department officially considers a group of 3,800 Marxist Iranian rebels - who once killed several Americans and was supported by Saddam Hussein - "terrorists."

28.Jul.2004 Republicans produce video capturing Kerry's evolution on Iraq in his words: Using video clips of Kerry discussing Iraq on various talk shows, the Republican National Committee has put together an 11-minute video that traces how Kerry struggled with the issue of Iraq through 2003 and early 2004 as he competed for — and finally won — the Democratic presidential nomination. Video and text

28.Jul.2004 What would Kerry do?: A majority of the Americans who plan to vote for John Kerry in November assume that he will pull US troops out of Iraq quickly if he becomes president + is only refusing to say so now to avoid being vilified by the Republican machine for failing to support American soldiers in action overseas. But it is possible that he actually means what he says.

28.Jul.2004 Democratic Delegates Differ with Kerry on Iraq: Many delegates at the Democratic national convention appear to be at odds with the man they hope to put into the White House on whether America should have gone to war in Iraq.

28.Jul.2004 'Parade' Snags Gen. Franks for Interview on Iraq : Franks, according to Parade, "believes that five years is a realistic timeline for the U.S. to be involved in Iraq."

28.Jul.2004 Human Rights Horrors in Haiti: “Morgue employees from the General Hospital in Port au Prince have revealed that 800 bodies on Sunday, March 7 + another 200 bodies on Sunday, March 28 were dumped and buried in a mass grave at Titanyen.

URL: https://noticias.clix.pt/Sociedade/71383.html
28.Jul.2004 Num comunicado sobre o Dia Nacional da Conservação da Natureza, a LPN afirmou existir uma "perda de influência" do Ministério do Ambiente, lançando mesmo a acusação de que a política pública de conservação da natureza se encontra "praticamente extinta no país".
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310747,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Nachdem es 1997 nur 5,6 Millionen Aktionäre in Deutschland gab, war die Zahl der Aktienbesitzer zur Jahresmitte 2001 zeitweilig bis auf 13,4 Millionen emporgeschnellt. Die dramatischen Kurseinbrüche hätten Privatinvestoren aber dauerhaft verschreckt.
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310747,00.html
28.Jul.2004 "Die Enttäuschung über die Kursverluste sitzt tief", weiß DAI-Leiter Rüdiger von Rosen.
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310747,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Frankfurt am Main - Der große Crash der Tech-Aktien kam Mitte 2000, die Zahl der Aktionäre aber stieg noch eine Zeit lang weiter. Rückläufig ist sie erst seit Mitte 2001 - seitdem aber kontinuierlich.

URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310747,00.html
28.Jul.2004 540.000 Deutsche verkaufen ihre Aktien
Aufschwung hin, Kaufkurse her: Immer weniger Deutsche mischen an der Börse mit. Allein im letzten halben Jahr sank die Zahl der Aktionäre um mehr als eine halbe Million.
URL: https://noticias.clix.pt/
28.Jul.2004 Anuncia a Direcção-Geral de Saúde
Calor: Alerta laranja levantado face à melhoria da situação climática - 21:44) "Sociedade/71379","Calor: Alerta laranja levantado face à melhoria da situação climática"); Serviço desmente razões económicas
SNBPC: Portugal recusou meios aéreos estrangeiros por razões técnicas - 21:07) "Sociedade/71378","SNBPC: Portugal recusou meios aéreos estrangeiros por razões técnicas");

Incêndio em Almodôvar e Loulé centra as atenções
Mais de 700 bombeiros combatem sete fogos em todo o país - 20:37)

URL: https://noticias.clix.pt/
28.Jul.2004 Desenvolvida pelo seu antecessor
Ministro da Agricultura elogia política de prevenção e vigilância de fogos - 18:41) "Politica/71370","Ministro da Agricultura elogia política de prevenção e vigilância de fogos");
Sessão de encerramento do debate sobre o programa do Governo
Santana Lopes promete primeiras medidas do Governo para sexta-feira - 13:15
URL: 
https://noticias.clix.pt/
28.Jul.2004 Ambiente
Ministério anuncia investimentos de sete milhões de euros na conservação da natureza - 2)
O Ministério do Ambiente e do Ordenamento do Território anunciou hoje ter previsto um investimento de sete milhões de euros em estudos e acções de conservação da natureza
URL: 
https://noticias.clix.pt/Sociedade/71377.html
28.Jul.2004 De acordo com o SNBPC, durante o dia de hoje foram registados outros incêndios nos distritos de Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Faro, Leiria, Lisboa, Portalegre, Porto, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real e Viseu que já foram dados como extintos.

Os bombeiros e a Protecção Civil relembram que não é permitido fazer-se queimadas, fogueiras, lançar foguetes, fumar ou fazer lume nas áreas florestais e aconselham a limpeza das matas em torno das habitações.

URL: https://noticias.clix.pt/Sociedade/71377.html
28.Jul.2004 Incêndio em Almodôvar e Loulé centra as atenções
Mais de 700 bombeiros combatem sete fogos em todo o país 20:37)
Sete incêndios florestais estavam activos às 19h20 em oito distritos um pouco por todo o país, envolvendo mais de 700 bombeiros no combate às chamas, anunciou o Serviço Nacional de Bombeiros e Protecção Civil (SNBPC).
"Mais de 700 bombeiros combatem sete fogos em todo o país");

A situação mais preocupante continua a ser o incêndio localizado nos concelhos de Almodôvar, distrito de Beja, e em Loulé, distrito de Faro, que está a ser combatido por 352 bombeiros, 98 viaturas, quatro aerotanques pesados, três helicópteros bombardeiros pesados, um helicóptero bombardeiro médio, um helicóptero de coordenação da Força Aérea e sete máquinas de rasto.
URL: https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/e235e52.html
Stichtag:

00.Jun.1847 Auf einem Kongreß des »Bundes der Gerechten« in London beschließt dieser, sich in »Bund der Kommunisten« umzubenennen.

Für den nächsten Kongreß soll ein »Glaubensbekenntnis« vorbereitet werden.

Der Kongreß beschließt die Herausgabe einer kommunistischen Zeitschrift, deren Aufgabe es sein soll, »für die Befreiung des Proletariats zu wirken,

und damit dieselbe sobald als möglich zustande kommt, alle Unterdrückten zur Vereinigung aufzufordern«.

00.Sep.1847 erscheint unter der Redaktion von K. Schapper das erste + einzige Heft dieser »Kommunistischen Zeitschrift« mit dem Motto: »Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!«

F. Engels und W. Wolff nehmen am Kongreß teil;

K. Marx aus Geldmangel nicht.
URL: 
https://library.fes.de/fulltext/bibliothek/chronik/band1/

Stichtag:

00.000.1847 Schwere Wirtschaftskrise. Die Lebensmittelpreise steigen stark an. Im Frühjahr kommt es in verschiedenen Orten zu Hungerrevolten

URL: https://authentico-historia.planetaclix.pt/
11.Jun.2003 https://www.lumpen.com/coup2k/coup2k-2.html
In his study, Luttwak writes that while a coup may have characteristics of other, more violent forms of extra-legal seizure of power, "the coup is not necessarily assisted by either the intervention of the masses, or, to any significant degree, by military-type force."
 4  

But if a coup does not use warfare or a mass uprising to seize control, then where does it get the power to do so? "The short answer," Luttwak says, "is that the power will come from the state itself... A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace the government from its control of the remainder."  5  

Normally, a coup does not seek to destroy the basic structure of the existing government, which is more typical of a revolution or a war for liberation.

Instead, Luttwak explains, those undertaking a true coup d'etat "want to seize power within the present system + [they] shall only stay in power if [they] embody some new status quo supported by those very forces which a revolution may seek to destroy."  6   (Emphasis in original.) In other words, the coup takes advantage of the governmental structure itself, as well as the bureaucratic nature of modern governments. There is an established hierarchy, an accepted chain of command + standard procedures that are followed when instructions come down this pipeline. So long as the instructions come from the appropriate source or level of authority, they will almost always be followed even if from a new + illegitimate, holder of that authority.
Edward Luttwak as he looks today. (CSIS photo) Luttwak explains that a coup "operates by taking advantage of this machine-like behavior: during the coup because it uses parts of the state apparatus to seize the controlling levers; afterwards because the value of the 'levers' depends on the fact that the state is a machine."
 7   Thus, by gaining control over a few carefully selected pivotal points of power within the government bureaucracy, the plotters of the coup can effectively gain control over the entire "machine" of state. During the presidential election, the key pivot points proved to be quite limited in number, not to mention patently obvious. The first was the state government of Florida, the second the US Supreme Court. But of course, every puppet needs a puppeteer. *******************
During the election crisis, the absence of "tanks in the streets" was often cited as a sign that however wacky things were, democracy was still intact. And indeed, the popular conception of a " coup d'etat" is of a violent uprising, usually by the military, with shooting in the streets, mass arrests, secret executions and torture. Sometimes even the presidential residence is blown to smithereens. In reality, this perception of coup s is somewhat mistaken. Strictly speaking, that sort of military overthrow is more characteristic of a "putsch." Coup s are often a different breed of covert action altogether, and often much quieter. In fact, much of what we just witnessed not only matches historical examples from the CIA's past history of election rigging and outright overthrows, but can be found in a respected coup "manual" authored by a one-time advisor to President Reagan.

It was the Republicans who first bandied the term " coup d'etat" to describe the 2000 presidential election. Since then, many have turned the tables and labeled Bush 's victory a coup . But how much of this is merely political rhetoric? John Dee writes that much of what happened matches historical examples of CIA election rigging and overthrows...and a respected coup "manual" authored by a one-time advisor to President Reagan. Introduction

What is a Coup d'Etat?
The Godfather
Banana Repugnant
Party Allies Wrongly Purged 'Felon' Voters
Systematic Absentee Ballot Fraud
'Spontaneous' Mob Violence
Propaganda
The Nixon Myth
The Spoiler
Supreme Court (In)Justice
No Justice, No Peace
endnotes
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URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310771,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Die Nachrichten aus Russland verpassten der gerade begonnenen Erholung an den Aktienmärkten einen empfindlichen Dämpfer. Der stark anziehende Ölpreis drückte Dow Jones und Nasdaq Composite in die Verlustzone und sorgte dafür, dass der Dax seine frühen Gewinne bis zum Nachmittag fast vollständig wieder abgab.

URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310771,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Putin schlägt zu - Rosneft könnte kaufen
Zugleich mehrten sich Signale, dass der Staatskonzern Rosneft mit Hilfe des Kremls bei dem zu erwartenden Verkauf der Jukos-Aktiva zum Zuge kommen könnte. Nach Einschätzung von Marktbeobachtern stellt Präsident Wladimir Putin in diesen Tagen die Weichen für den Ausverkauf von Jukos.
Die Ernennung des engen Putin-Vertraugen Igor Setschin zum Aufsichtsratsvorsitzenden des Jukos-Konkurrenten Rosneft erhöhe die Sorge, dass Jukos-Aktiva billig verkauft werden könnten, schreibt die Alfa-Bank. Auch der weltweit größte Gaskonzern Gasprom wird von einem Vertrauten Putins aus St. Petersburger Zeiten, Alexej Miller, geführt.
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310771,00.html
28.Jul.2004 New York/ Moskau - Die Jukos-Affäre trieb den Ölpreis in New York heute auf einen neuen Höchststand. Der Septemberfuture für einen Barrel (159 Liter) der Sorte Light-Sweet-Crude kletterte in der Spitze bis auf 42,45 US-Dollar. Damit wurde die alte Rekordmarke von Anfang Juni mit 42,38 Dollar übertroffen.
Zuvor hatten die russischen Behörden den Förderbetrieb Juganskneftegas beschlagnahmt und weitere Öl-Verkäufe von dort aus mit sofortiger Wirkung verboten. Der Betrieb in Westsibirien fördert 61 Prozent des gesamten Jukos-Öls und verfügt über 70 Prozent der Reserven. Außerdem sollen die Gerichtsbeamten Jukos praktisch verboten haben, weiter seinen Geschäften nachzugehen. Nach Angaben der Nachrichtenagentur Reuters bezieht sich das Verkaufsverbot insgesamt auf vier Tochterfirmen des Konzerns. Diese förderten insgesamt 1,7 Millionen Barrel Erdöl pro Tag. Dabei handelt es sich um eine beträchtliche Menge. Zum Vergleich: Die Gesamtförderung der größten Erdölnation Saudi-Arabien beläuft sich auf rund 8,6 Millionen Barrel pro Tag.
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/0,1518,310771,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Jukos-Affäre treibt Ölpreis auf Rekordniveau
Gerichtsvollzieher haben den wichtigsten Jukos-Förderbetrieb Juganskneftegas angewiesen, den Verkauf von Öl sofort einzustellen. Damit wird sich der größte russische Ölexporteur nicht mehr lange halten können - mit bösen Folgen für den Weltmarkt.
28.Jul.2004 Seamole's Log ... 2003-10-21 6:17:30 PM: Yes, I said " Coup ". Edward Luttwak's classic Coup d ' État : A Practical Handbook defines a coup as follows: ... seamole.blogspot.com/2003_10_01_seamole_archive.html

28.Jul.2004 Radio Martí Observer - November 2002 Archive ... manipulation of the person of the ruler.' Edward Luttwak, Coup d ' État : A Practical Handbook . (RMO) - Fernando Rojas (Chief of Staff and ...
www.cubapolidata.com/rmo/archive/200211.html

28.Jul.2004 sandiego.indymedia.org | Monkey Business ... such as neurotic academic attack poodles like my family's associate, "Israeli-American" Edward Luttwak (author of COUP D ' ETAT : A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK and other ... sandiego.indymedia.org/en/2003/04/5655.shtml

28.Jul.2004 A-list message, Re: [A-List] How to Control People (Oil War) ... Edward Luttwak, Coup d ' État , A Practical Handbook , Harvard University Press, 1979 p.27 Rule Number 1: Be economical with the truth Last Wednesday Her ... archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/a-list/2002w42/msg00031.htm

28.Jul.2004 Citizens for Legitimate Government, Bush Election Coup 2000 2K ... Excerpts From Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook By Edward Luttwak; A blacklist burning for Bush The more you look the more disbarred and 'disappeared' Gore ... www.legitgov.org/linksPcoup.html

28.Jul.2004 The Mystique of AirpowerThe Airpower Professional ... Coup d ’ État : A Practical Handbook by Edward Luttwak. • Covert German Rearmament, 1919–1939: Deception and Misperception by Barton Whaley. ...
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj99/sum99/petersen.html

28.Jul.2004 The Fringe Speaks Out ... Former NSC, State Department and CIA analyst and consultant Edward Luttwak in his classic 1968 Òcoup manualÓ Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook , states that ...
www.fringefolk.com/fsMB2.html
28.Jul.2004
RECOVERED HISTORY: Tales from the memory hole. The Progressive ... ... COUPS D ' ETAT . Excerpts from Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook by Edward Luttwak; The Origins of the American Military Coup of 2012 by Charles J. Dunlap, Jr. ... prorev.com/recovered.htm

Information Headquarters: Coup d'Žtat ... As Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d'Žtat: A practical handbook : "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus ...
www.informationheadquarters.com/War/Coup.shtml

28.Jul.2004 Scoop: SRA Commentary: How to Control People ... to displace the government from its control of the remainder.” - Edward Luttwak, Coup d ’ État , A Practical Handbook , Harvard University Press, 1979 p.27. .
www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0210/S00004.htm

28.Jul.2004 Election, What 1968, Luttwak penned " Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook ," which could be the text of the 2000 Bush campaign, as John Dee reports in Lumpen magazine. ... thomasmc.com/0912b.htm

28.Jul.2004 Neo-Crazy Coup d'Etat - by Gordon Prather
... Well, according to Edward Luttwak, author of Coup D ' etat : A Practical Handbook , "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the ... www.antiwar.com/orig/prather.php?articleid=2343

28.Jul.2004 WorldNetDaily: Neo-crazy coup d'etat ... Well, according to Edward Luttwak, author of " Coup D ' etat : A Practical Handbook ," "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the ...
worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34011

28.Jul.2004 Excerpts From Coup d'Etat: A Practical Handbook ... ++. Excerpts From Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook By Edward Luttwak. (Harvard University Press, 1968. Page citations are from the 1979 paperback edition.) ... www.subliminal.org/news/coup.html

Subliminal News - Excerpts from 'Coup d'Etat: A Practical Handbook ......

June 01, 2003. Excerpts from ' Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook ' by Edward Luttwak. ... Excerpts From Coup d ' Etat : A Practical Handbook By Edward Luttwak. ... www.subliminalnews.com/archives/000067.php

URL: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674175476/wwwlink-software-21/026-6449459-3034054
28.Jul.2004
Coup D'Etat: A Practical Handbook
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A reader, London, UK, October 7, 2001
Very insightful
An outline of planning Coup d'etats - although geared towards being a pratical handbook is insightful for students of history since it helps to explain why coups go wrong.

This book is "one of a kind" and well worth reading - whether you want to plan a coup or not.
URL: https://www.wordiq.com/definition/Coup
28.Jul.2004 . an intelligence coup

URL: https://www.wordiq.com/definition/Coup
28.Jul.2004 Any seizure of the state apparatus by extra-legal tactics may be considered a coup, according to Luttwak.

URL: https://www.wordiq.com/definition/Coup
28.Jul.2004 Coup d'état

A coup d'état (IPA: /ku? det??/ ), often simply called a coup , is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. It is different from a revolution, which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. The term is French for "a sudden stroke, or blow, of a nation". The term coup can also be used in a casual sense to mean a gain in advantage of one nation or entity over another; e.g. an intelligence coup . By analogy, the term is also applied to corporations, etc; e.g. a boardroom coup .

Tactically, a coup usually involves control of some active portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of a country's armed services. This active group captures or expels leaders, seizes physical control of important government offices, means of communication + the physical infrastructure, such as streets and power plants. The coup succeeds if its opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace and surviving armed forces, and claim legitimacy.

Coups typically use the power of the existing government for its own takeover. As Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d'état: A practical handbook : "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace the government from its control of the remainder." In this sense, use of military or other organized force is not the defining feature of a coup d'état. Any seizure of the state apparatus by extra-legal tactics may be considered a coup, according to Luttwak.

URL: https://www.wordiq.com/definition/Coup
28.Jul.2004 Coup d'état

A coup d'état (IPA: /ku? det??/ ), often simply called a coup , is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. It is different from a revolution, which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. The term is French for "a sudden stroke, or blow, of a nation". The term coup can also be used in a casual sense to mean a gain in advantage of one nation or entity over another; e.g. an intelligence coup . By analogy, the term is also applied to corporations, etc; e.g. a boardroom coup .

Tactically, a coup usually involves control of some active portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of a country's armed services. This active group captures or expels leaders, seizes physical control of important government offices, means of communication + the physical infrastructure, such as streets and power plants. The coup succeeds if its opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace and surviving armed forces, and claim legitimacy.

Coups typically use the power of the existing government for its own takeover. As Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d'état: A practical handbook : "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace the government from its control of the remainder." In this sense, use of military or other organized force is not the defining feature of a coup d'état. Any seizure of the state apparatus by extra-legal tactics may be considered a coup, according to Luttwak. History

Coups have long been part of political tradition. Indeed, Julius Caesar made a coup and was the victim of another coup. Many Roman emperors, such as Claudius, came to power in coups. Modern dictators such as Juan Perón also benefited from coups.

In the late 20th century coups occurred most commonly in developing countries, particularly in Latin America (Brazil, Chile), Africa and Asia (Pakistan), but also in the Pacific (Fiji) and in Europe (Greece, Portugal, Spain, Soviet Union). Since the 1980s, the coup has been seen somewhat less frequently. A significant reason is the general inability to resolve the economic and political problems of developing nations, which has made armed forces, particularly in Latin America, much more reluctant to intervene in politics. Hence, in contrast to past crises, the armed forces have sat on the sidelines through economic crises such as the Asian crisis in Thailand in 1998 or the Argentinian crisis of 2002 and have tended to act only when the military perceives itself as institutionally threatened by the civilian government, as occurred in Pakistan in 1999.

Coups d'état have often been a means for powerful nations to assure favorable outcomes in smaller foreign states. In particular, the American CIA and Soviet KGB were well known for engineering coups in states such as Chile and Afghanistan. Such actions are substitutes for direct military intervention which can be kept secret from the domestic public to prevent their interference. The governments of France and Britain have been accused of engineering coups as well. New styles of coups

In recent years, the traditional military coup has declined massively in use. Today, even Africa, once the most coup-plagued continent on earth, rarely experiences a violent overthrow of an existing regime.

A new, more contemporary form of military intervention which some regard as a coup d'état is simple threat of military force to remove a particularly unpopular leader. This has occurred twice in the Philippines. In contrast to previous coups d'état, the military does not directly assume power, but rather serves as an arbiter for civilian leaders.

In recent years mass street protests have also often been able to force leaders from office in a coup-like fashion. In situations of this sort, such as in Argentina (2001), Bolivia (2003) and Haiti (2004) popular uprisings simply forced the sitting president to resign his office, causing someone new to assume the presidency. This often results in a period of stability and calm, in which an unknown and uncontroversial Vice President can rule the nation until new elections can be held. Types of coups

Samuel P. Huntington has divided coups into three types (ignoring Luttwak's non-military coups) Breakthrough coups - In which a revolutionary army overthrows a traditional government and creates a new bureaucratic elite. Breakthrough coups are generally led by NCOs or junior officers and only happen once. Examples include China in 1911 and Egypt in 1956. Guardian coups - These coups have been described as musical chairs. The stated aim of this form of coup is to improve public order, efficiency, or to end corruption. There is usually no fundamental shift in the structure of power. Many nations with guardian coups undergo many shifts between civilian and military governments. Examples include Pakistan, Turkey, and Thailand. Veto coups - These coups occur when the army vetoes mass participation and social mobilization. In these cases the army must confront and suppress large-scale and broad-based opposition and as a result they tend to be repressive and bloody. Examples include Chile in 1973 and Argentina in 1975. An abortive and botched veto coup occurred in Venezuela in 2002.

Coups can also be classified by the level of the military that leads the coup. Veto coups and guardian coups tend to be led by senior officers. Breakthrough coups tend to be led by junior officers or NCOs. In cases where the coup is led by junior officers or enlisted men, the coup is also a mutiny which can have grave implications for the organizational structure of the military.

There is also a category known as bloodless coups in which the mere threat of violence is enough to force the current government to step aside. Bloodless coups are so called because they involve no violence and thus no bloodshed. Napoleon acceded to the power that way in 1799 (the coup of 18 Brumaire). More recently, Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan came to power in such a manner in 1999.

The term self-coup is used when the current government assumes extraordinary powers not allowed by the legislation. An example is Alberto Fujimori in Peru, who was democratically elected, but later took control of the legislative and judicial powers. Post-military-coup governments

After the coup, the military is faced with the issue of the type of government to establish. In Latin America, it was common for the post-coup government to be led by a junta, a committee of the chiefs of staff of the various armed forces. A common form of African post-coup government is the revolutionary assembly, a quasi-legislative body made of members elected by the army. In Pakistan, the military leader typically assumes the title of chief martial law administrator.

According to Huntington, most coup leaders act under the concept of right orders : they believe that the correct approach to government is to issue correct orders. This view of government underestimates the difficulty in implementing government policy and the amount of possible political resistance to certain orders. Important coups in the 20th century: 1917: February Revolution and October Revolution in Russia 1923: The Beer Hall Putsch, a failed coup attempt by Adolf Hitler in Germany 1926:

Coup of Jozef Pilsudski in Poland 1932:

The May 15th Incident, a military coup in Japan 1935:

Coup in Greece 1936:

Part of the army seizes control of parts of Spain commencing the Spanish Civil War.

Later General Francisco Franco assumes control of the country.

1936: The February 26th Incident, a failed coup attempt in Japan by junior military officers that did succeed in installing a militarist government.

1943: Military coup in Argentina

1944: Failed coup attempt in Nazi Germany by Claus von Stauffenberg

1947: Coup in Thailand 1

948: Coup in Czechoslovakia

1952: Military coup in Egypt

1954: Military coup in Paraguay

1960: Military coup in Turkey

1961: The Coup d'état of May Sixteenth in South Korea.

Park Chunghee established presidentship 1963:

Military coup in South Vietnam, overthrowing Ngo Dinh Diem 1963:

Military coup in Ecuador 1963:

Military coup in Syria 1963:

Coup in Iraq, followed by a

counter-coup

1964: Military coup in Brazil

1964: Military coup in South Vietnam, overthrowing Duong Van Minh

1966: Military coup in Ghana

1967: Military coup in Greece

1968: Coup in Iraq establishes rule of the Ba'ath Party

1969: Colonel Qadhafi overthrows monarchy in Libya

1970: Coup in Bolivia, soon followed by a leftist countercoup

1971: Military coup in Turkey

1973: Military coup in Chile

1973: The President of Uruguay dissolves Parliament and heads a coup

1974: Military coup in Portugal (Carnation Revolution)

1976: Military coup in Ecuador

1979: The Coup d'état of December Twelvth in South Korea. Chun Doo-hwan established presidentship.

1980: Military coup in Turkey

1981: Failed coup in Spain led by Antonio Tejero

1991: Failed coup attempt in the Soviet Union

1992: Alberto Fujimori launches a self-coup in Peru Recent coups and coup attempts

1999: Military coup in Pakistan

2000: Military coup in Fiji

2002: Unsuccessful coup to overthrow Hugo Chávez in Venezuela

2002: Attempted coup in Côte d'Ivoire

2002: Military coup in Central African Republic

2003: Attempted coup in Mauritania

2003: Military coup in São Tomé and Príncipe

2003: Military coup in Guinea-Bissau

2004: Military coup in Haiti

2004: Attempted coup in the Democratic Republic of Congo

2004: Second attempted coup in the Democratic Republic of Congo

(June) Currently-serving leaders who came to power in coups

Gnassingbé Eyadéma, President of Togo (1967-)

Moammar al-Qadhafi, leader of Libya (1969-)

Pervez Musharraf, leader of Pakistan (1999-)

Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir, leader of Sudan (1989-)

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, President of Equatorial Guinea (1979-)

Idriss Déby, President of Chad (1990-)

Yahya Jammeh, President of The Gambia (1994-)

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, President of Tunisia (1987-)

Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso (1987-)

Lansana Conté, President of Guinea (1984-)

Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, President of Mauritania (1984-)

Azali Assoumani, President of the Comoros (1999-)

François Bozizé, President of the Central African Republic (2003-)

Reference Edward Luttwak, Coup d'etat: A practical handbook , Harvard University Press, 1969, 1980. ISBN 06-741-75476
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/panorama/0,1518,310720,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Sowohl in Südfrankreich als auch in Portugal und Spanien treiben Winde die Flammen voran. Zudem herrschen derzeit auf der Iberischen Halbinsel Temperaturen von mehr als 40 Grad Celsius.

Die Hitzewelle soll noch bis mindestens morgen andauern.

URL: https://www.spiegel.de/panorama/0,1518,310720,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Kritisch ist die Situation auch an der portugiesischen Algarve-Küste. Nach Informationen des Rundfunks frisst sich bei Loulé nahe Faro ein großes Feuer durchs Unterholz.

In der Nacht brach auch in einem Nationalpark nahe Braga im Norden Portugals Feuer aus. Nach Angaben des Zivilschutzes brennt es gleichzeitig an 572 Orten in 14 von 18 Regionen.

Mehr als 7000 Feuerwehrleute, Soldaten und Helfer sind im Einsatz. Nach Angaben der portugiesischen Behörden sind Touristen nicht in Gefahr. In vielen Fällen wird Brandstiftung als Ursache der Feuer vermutet.
URL: https://www.spiegel.de/panorama/0,1518,310720,00.html
28.Jul.2004 Rund 250 Feuerwehrleute und Helfer sind im Einsatz. Sie werden von einem Dutzend Löschflugzeugen und -hubschraubern unterstützt.

Das Feuer war von einem Anwohner verursacht worden, der Plastikmüll verbrannt hatte. Drei weitere Waldbrände wurden aus Galicien im Nordwesten Spaniens gemeldet.
28.Jul.2004
Neue Theorie: Ozonloch war größter Killer der Erdgeschichte
Vor 250 Millionen Jahren kam es zum größten Massensterben der Erdgeschichte. Einer neuen Theorie zufolge haben gewaltige Vulkanausbrüche die Ozonschicht derart beschädigt, dass bis zu 90 Prozent aller Tier- und Pflanzenarten aussterben konnten.
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28.Jul.2004 T-hack": Telekom gesteht Sicherheitsprobleme ein
Die Telekom hat Berichte des Chaos Computer Club (CCC), nach dem es massive Sicherheitslücken bei der Verwaltung der Kundendaten der Online-Dienste der T-Com gegeben habe, teilweise bestätigt. Die Dienste sind bis auf weiteres abgeschaltet - und rund 120.000 Kunden aufgerufen, ihre Passworte zu ändern.

28.Jul.2004 Dokumentation "DDR privat": Eine Übung für den Ernstfall
Amateuraufnahmen ambitionierter Hobbyfilmer gehören zum festen Handwerkszeug des historischen Dokumentaristen.

Auch der MDR bedient sich für seine Doku-Reihe "DDR privat" aus dem Fundus der privaten Videos. Die Filme selbst sind erhellend und authentisch, allein das Drumherum des ARD-Senders riecht verdächtig nach Ostalgie.

28.Jul.2004 Geheimdienstbericht: Iran versucht Atombomben-Bestandteil zu kaufen
Iran will nach Angaben aus Geheimdienstkreisen in Russland Deuterium kaufen, das Bestandteil von Atombomben ist.

Bundesaußenminister Fischer warnte unterdessen die Regierung in Teheran vor einer Kehrtwende in der Nuklearpolitik.

28.Jul.2004 Kursfrust: 540.000 Deutsche verkaufen ihre

28.Jul.2004 Verkaufsstopp in Russland: Jukos-Affäre treibt Ölpreis auf Rekordniveau
Gerichtsvollzieher haben den wichtigsten Jukos-Förderbetrieb Juganskneftegas angewiesen, den Verkauf von Öl sofort einzustellen.

Damit wird sich der größte russische Ölexporteur nicht mehr lange halten können - mit bösen Folgen für den Weltmarkt.

28.Jul.2004 Portugal und Spanien: Wälder stehen in Flammen - erste Todesopfer zu beklagen

28.Jul.2004 DONNER PARTY"
Spuren von US-Kannibalen gefunden
Sie sind die berühmtesten Kannibalen der USA: die Siedler der "Donner Party", die im Winter 1846/1847 auf dem Weg nach Westen im Schnee stecken blieben und ihre Toten aßen, um nicht zu verhungern.

Archäologen glauben nun, Reste des grausigen Geschehens gefunden zu haben.

28.Jul.2004 Definition of Coup d'état - wordIQ Dictionary &amp; Encyclopedia
... As Edward Luttwak remarks in his Coup d ' état : A practical handbook : "A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus ... www.wordiq.com/definition/Coup

URL: https://www.lumpen.com/coup2k/coup2k-2.html
28.Jul.2004 In his study, Luttwak writes that while a coup may have characteristics of other, more violent forms of extra-legal seizure of power, "the coup is not necessarily assisted by either the intervention of the masses, or, to any significant degree, by military-type force."  4  

But if a coup does not use warfare or a mass uprising to seize control, then where does it get the power to do so? "The short answer," Luttwak says, "is that the power will come from the state itself...

A coup consists of the infiltration of a small but critical segment of the state apparatus, which is then used to displace the government from its control of the remainder."  5  

Normally, a coup does not seek to destroy the basic structure of the existing government, which is more typical of a revolution or a war for liberation.

Instead, Luttwak explains, those undertaking a true coup d'etat "want to seize power within the present system + [they] shall only stay in power if [they] embody some new status quo supported by those very forces which a revolution may seek to destroy."  6   (Emphasis in original.)

In other words, the coup takes advantage of the governmental structure itself, as well as the bureaucratic nature of modern governments. There is an established hierarchy, an accepted chain of command, and standard procedures that are followed when instructions come down this pipeline. So long as the instructions come from the appropriate source or level of authority, they will almost always be followed even if from a new + illegitimate, holder of that authority.

URL: https://www.lumpen.com/coup2k/coup2k-2.html
28.Jul.2004 What is a Coup d'Etat?

One of the landmark studies of the mechanics of coups d'etat was first published in 1968 by Harvard University. Coup d'Etat: A Practical Handbook was written by Edward Luttwak, a conservative scholar with a long career in the national security system. During the Reagan-era, he served as a "consultant" to the National Security Council and the State Department. Currently, Luttwak is senior fellow of "Preventive Diplomacy" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Washington think-tank with close ties to US intelligence. He is also a member of the National Security Study Group of the Dept. of Defense.  3